Misl generally refers to the sovereign states of the Sikh Confederacy,   that rose during the 18th century in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and is cited as one of the causes of the weakening of the Mughal Empire prior to Nader Shah's invasion of India.
The misls formed a commonwealth that was described by Antoine Polier as a natural "aristocratic republic". In order to withstand the persecution of Shah Jahan and other Mughal rulers, several of the later Sikh Gurus established military forces and fought the Mughal Empire and Hindu hill chiefs  in the early and middle Mughal-Sikh Wars. For several years Sikhs found refuge in the jungles and the Himalayan foothills until they organized themselves into military bands known as jathas.
Each Misl was made up of members of soldiers, whose loyalty was given to the Misl's leader. A Misl could be composed of a few hundred to tens of thousands soldiers. Any soldier was free to join whichever Misl he wished, and was free to cancel his membership of the Misl to whom he belonged.
He could, if he wanted, cancel his membership of his old Misl and join another. The Barons would allow their armies to combine or coordinate their defences together against a hostile force if ordered by the Misldar Supreme Commander. These orders were only issued in military matters affecting the whole Sikh community. These orders would normally be related to defense against external threats, such as Afghan military attacks.
The profits of a fighting action were divided by the misls to individuals based on the service rendered after the conflict using the sardari system. The Sikh Confederacy is a description of the political structure, of how all the Barons' Kingdoms interacted with each other politically together in Punjab. Although misls varied in strength, the use of primarily light cavalry with a smaller amount heavy cavalry was uniform throughout all of the Sikh misls. Cavalrymen in a misl were required to supply their own horses and equipment.
The most prevalent system of payment was the 'Fasalandari' system; soldiers would receive payment every six months at the end of a harvest. Fauja Singh considers the Sikh misls to be guerrilla armiesalthough he notes that the Sikh misls generally had greater numbers and a larger number of artillery pieces than a guerrilla army would.
The misls adapted their tactics to their strength in cavalry and weakness in artillery and avoided pitched battles. Misls organized their armies around bodies of horsemen and their units fought battles in a series of skirmishes, a tactic which gave them an advantage over fighting pitched battles. Bodies of cavalry would attack a position, retreat, reload their muskets, and return to attack it again.
The tactics used by misl field armies include flanking an enemy, obstructing river passages, cutting off a unit from its supplies, intercepting messengers, attacking isolated units like foraging parties, employing hit-and-run tacticsoverrunning camps, and attacking baggage trains. To fight large armies the misl would completely evacuate the areas in front of the enemy's marching route but follow in the rear of the opposition and reconquer areas the enemy had just captured, threaten agents of the enemy with retribution, and sweep over the countryside in the wake of the enemy's withdrawal.
The Running Skirmish was a tactic unique to the Sikh cavalrymen which was notable for its effectiveness and the high degree of skill required to execute it. George Thomas and George Forster, contemporary writers who witnessed it described its use separately in their accounts of the military of the Sikhs.
George Forster noted:. Their horses have been so expertly trained to a performance of this operation that on receiving a stroke of hand, they stop from a full canter. The remainder was separated into Puttees or parcels for each Surkunda, and these were again subdivided and parcelled out to inferior leaders, according to the number of horse they brought into the field.Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanakthe first Guru — and the nine Sikh Gurus that succeeded him.
The tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singhnamed the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and establishing the scripture as the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs. It teaches followers to transform the " Five Thieves " i. The religion developed and evolved in times of religious persecution, gaining converts from both Hinduism and Islam.
The anglicised word Sikhism derives from the Punjabi verb Sikhiwhich connotes the "temporal path of learning" and is rooted in the word sikhana 'to learn'. A Sikh can be defined as any human being who faithfully believes in:  i.
One Immortal Being, ii. The Guru Granth Sahib, iv. The utterances and teachings of the ten Gurus and v. Sikhism is classified as an Indian religion along with BuddhismHinduism and Jainism. The basis of Sikhism lies in the teachings of Guru Nanak and his successors. Many sources call Sikhism a monotheistic religion,   while others call it a monistic and panentheistic religion. However, what is not in doubt is the emphasis on 'one'. In Sikhism, the concept of "God" is Waheguru 'wondrous Lord' considered to be nirankar 'shapeless'akal 'timeless'karta purakh 'The Creator'and agam agochar 'incomprehensible and invisible'.
Its founder Guru Nanak summarized this perspective:  : It is also akaal purkh 'beyond time and space' and nirankar 'without form'. In addition, Nanak wrote that there are many worlds on which it has created life.
The traditional Mul Mantar goes from ik onkar until Nanak hosee bhee sach. The opening line of the Guru Granth Sahib and each subsequent ragamentions ik onkar : .
Sikhs believe the world is currently in a state of kali yuga 'age of darkness' because the world is led astray by the love of and attachment to maya. According to Guru Nanak the supreme purpose of human life is to reconnect with Akal 'The Timeless One;however, egotism is the biggest barrier in doing this.
Guru Nanak designated the word Guru 'teacher'  to mean the voice of "the spirit": the source of knowledge and the guide to salvation. The human body is just a means to achieve the reunion with Truth. Sikhs believe in reincarnation and karma concepts found in BuddhismHinduism, and Jainism.He was succeeded by nine other gurus until, inthe Guruship was finally passed on by the tenth guru to the holy Sikh scripture, Guru Granth Sahibwhich is now considered the living Guru by the followers of the Sikh faith.
Bhai Vir Singh 's definition provides further insight about Sikhism itself and explains why Guru Granth Sahib is considered the living Guru. Thus, Sikhs have a student-teacher relationship with their Gurus since their teachings, written in Guru Granth Sahibserve as a guide for them.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Sikh Gurus. Spiritual leaders of Sikhism. Main article: Guru. A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. Lustre Press. South Asian Politics and Religion. Princeton University Press. Sri Guru Granth Kosh. India portal Biography portal Punjab portal. Sikh Empire. Sikh Khalsa Army. Categories : Sikh gurus. Hidden categories: Pages using Timeline Articles with short description Articles containing Sanskrit-language text Use dmy dates from August Namespaces Article Talk.
Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Baba Pheru. Mata Ramo. Tej Bhan Bhalla. Mata Bakht. Baba Hari Das. Mata Ganga. Mata Nihal. Mata Krishan. Mata Nanki.Sahajdhari Sikhs literally "slow adopter"  is a person who has chosen the path of Sikhismbut has not yet become an Amritdhari an initiated Sikh initiated into the Khalsa.
According to the Indian Government's Delhi Sikh Gurdwaras Act and the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committeethe word Sahajdhari refers to a person born into a non-Sikh family: a person born in a Sikh family or a baptized Sikh cannot claim to be a Sahajdhari Sikh by giving up the five articles of faith; known as Patit Sikh such as trimming hair. Sahajdhari Sikhs plan to get baptized sometime in their lives, and usually raise their children as full Sikhs, although many of them choose not to.
The tribes that are mainly Sahajdharis include the Aroraswhereas the Keshdharis mainly belong to the Khatri tribes, who formed the majority of the Sikh population. Sahajdharis are essentially a non-monastic version of a monastic Sikh group called, the Udasiswho are also members of the Arora tribe. Udasis are Sahajdharis who choose their paths to live their lives as monks.
Sahajdhari is a compound of two words sahaj and dhari. In Sanskrit and other Indo-Aryan languagesthe words Sahaj means: spiritual state of equilibrium and dhari means "adopter". A sahajdhari believes in all the tenets of Sikhism and the teaching of the Sikh Gurus but has not put all of them into practice.
The reasons can be many, including not being disciplined enough to maintain the Khalsa code of conduct or due to personal reasons of them not believing they have enough commitment to become a full Khalsa Sikh. In the Sikh community these reasons are considered valid, as to renege upon them or break the Khalsa code of conduct, once becoming a baptized Sikh Khalsa, is considered one of the greatest sins in Sikhism, so it is better not to commit by not becoming a baptized Khalsa Sikh rather than to fall short later.
According to the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committeethe Sahajdharis are ones "who have expressed their desire to adopt Sikhism slowly and gradually, its doctrines, ethics and tenants sic with belief in Shri Guru Granth Sahib and the 10 Gurus".
They are:. They are for identification and representation of the ideals of Sikhism, such as honesty, equality, fidelity, meditating on God, and never bowing to tyranny. Sahajdhari means Sikhs who are slowly learning and adopting the Sikh religion. It was a term used specifically to describe Hindus who were adopting Sikh beliefs, but still followed, or were reluctant to give up, Hindu beliefs and practices. It is a mobile process, not a static process, as some would believe.
Sahajdhari Sikhs are expected to keep all the outer articles of the prescribed faith at some stage. Wearing of all five Ks only applies to initiated Sikhs. Indeed, most Sahajdhari start by keeping one of the five Ks most wear the Kara, and gradually progress to wearing more of them.Male Sikhs generally have Singh 'lion' as their middle or last name, though not all Singhs are necessarily Sikhs; likewise, female Sikhs have Kaur 'princess' as their middle or last name.
The Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent has been the historic homeland of the Sikhs, having even been ruled by the Sikhs for significant parts of the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, the Punjab state in northwest India has a majority Sikh population, and sizeable communities of Sikhs exist around the world.
Many countries, such as the United Kingdomrecognize Sikhs as a designated religion on their censuses,  and, as ofSikhs are considered as a separate ethnic group in the United States. However, Sikh political history may be said to begin in with the death of the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan Dev.
During the rule of the Mughal Empire in India —several Sikh gurus were killed by the Mughals for opposing their persecution of minority religious communities, including Sikhs. This era would be characterised by religious tolerance and pluralismincluding Christians, Muslims, and Hindus in positions of power.
Its secular administration implemented military, economic, and governmental reforms. The empire is considered the zenith of political Sikhism,  encompassing KashmirLadakhand Peshawar. After the annexation of the Sikh kingdom by the British, the latter would begin recruiting from that area once recognizing the martial qualities of the Sikhs and Punjabis in general. During the Indian mutinythe Sikhs stayed loyal to the British, resulting in heavy recruitment from Punjab to the colonial army for the next 90 years of the British Raj.
The Sikh leaders of the Singh Sabha worked to offer a clear definition of Sikh identity and tried to purify Sikh belief and practice. The later years of British colonial rule saw the emergence of the Akali movement to bring reform in the gurdwaras during the early s.
The movement led to the introduction of Sikh Gurdwara Bill inwhich placed all the historical Sikh shrines in India under the control of the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee. The months leading up to the partition of India were marked by conflict in the Punjab between Sikhs and Muslims.
This caused the religious migration of Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus from West Punjab to the east modern Indiamirroring a simultaneous religious migration of Punjabi Muslims from East Punjab to the west modern Pakistan. This was promised to Sikh leader Master Tara Singh by Jawaharlal Nehruin return for Sikh political support during negotiations for Indian independence.
Inon the first of November, Chandigarh was made a union territory and the capital of Punjab and Haryana. This would subsequently lead to Gandhi's assassination by her Sikh bodyguards. Sincerelations between Sikhs and Hindus have moved toward a rapprochement aided by economic prosperity. During the day of Vaisakhi inSikhs worldwide celebrated the th anniversary of the creation of the Khalsa.
Canada Post honoured Sikh Canadians with a commemorative stamp in conjunction with the anniversary. Likewise, on 9 April Indian president K.
Narayanan issued a stamp commemorating the th anniversary of the Khalsa as well.It is the most decorated regiment of the Indian Army and inthe 1st battalion was the Commonwealth 's most decorated battalion with pre-independence and 82 post-independence gallantry awards, when it was transformed into the 4th battalion, Mechanised Infantry Regiment. The Centre was earlier located in MeerutUttar Pradesh. When transferred to the Indian Army like its sister regiments, the numeral prefix in the case of the Sikh Regiment, 11 was removed and extra battalions were raised, transferred or disbanded to meet army needs.
With a humble beginning of two battalions, today the fraternity has grown to a regiment of 19 regular infantry and two reserve battalions strong. Among the earliest entirely Sikh units of the Bengal Army were the Regiment of Ferozepore raised in which later became the 14th King George's Own Ferozepore Sikhsand the Regiment of Ludhiana also raised in which later became the 15th Ludhiana Sikhs.
Sikh units generally remained loyal to the British during the Indian Rebellion ofin which many regiments of the Bengal Army which mainly recruited from Bihar and Awadh mutinied against their British officers. After the rebellion, troops from Bihar and Awadh were recruited less as they had led the mutiny; the centre of recruitment then shifted to the Punjab and the North-West Frontierresulting in more Sikhs being recruited into the Bengal Army.
A number of new Sikh regiments were raised, such as the 36th Sikhs and 35th Sikhsboth raised in During the Indo-Pakistani War ofthe 1st battalion of the Sikh Regiment was the first unit to be airlifted to Srinagar to aid in the defence of the Kashmir Valley against Pakistani irregular forces.
Enlisted soldiers are recruited mainly from the Jat Sikh of Punjab and its surrounding states. About Indian soldiers, some belonging to the regiment, mutinied after the storming of the Golden Temple by the Indian Army as part of Operation Blue Star in The Sikh Regiment's 9th battalion was disbanded after a large number of its troops mutinied.
Advanced plans by the British Army to raise a Sikh infantry regiment that would recruit from the UK's Sikh community were scrapped due to accusations by the Commission for Racial Equality CRE that such a creation could be viewed as racist or sectarian. The plan had many supporters, including Prince Charles. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Infantry regiment of the Indian Army. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 21 July Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved The London Gazette.
British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 19 July Indian Defence Review. Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 3 April July 2, — via NYTimes. Archived from the original on November 18, Retrieved 26 November Retrieved 6 October Sikh Empire.Sikhs also refer to gurdwaras as Gurdwara Sahib.
People from all faiths are welcomed in Sikh gurdwaras. Each gurdwara has a Darbar Sahib where the current and everlasting guru of the Sikhs, the scripture Guru Granth Sahibis placed on a takhat an elevated throne in a prominent central position.
The raagis who sing Ragas recite, sing, and explain the verses from the Guru Granth Sahib, in the presence of the congregation. All gurdwaras have a langar hall, where people can eat free vegetarian food served by volunteers at the gurdwara. The most well-known gurdwaras are in the Darbar Sahib complex in AmritsarPunjab  including Darbar Sahibthe spiritual center of the Sikhs and Akal Takhtthe political center of the Sikhs. Gurudwara Bangla Sahib is one of the most prominent Sikh gurdwara in Delhi, India and known for its association with the eighth Sikh GuruGuru Har Krishanas well as the pool inside its complex, known as the "Sarovar.
It now lies in the Narowal District of west Punjab Pakistan. The worship centres were built as a place where Sikhs could gather to hear the guru give spiritual discourse and sing religious hymns in the praise of Waheguru. As the Sikh population continued to grow, Guru Hargobindthe sixth Sikh guru, introduced the word gurdwara. By the early 20th century, a number of Sikh gurdwaras in British India were under the control of the Udasi mahant s clergymen. The Panj Takht which literally means five seats or thrones of authority, are five gurdwaras which have a very special significance for the Sikh community.
A gurdwara has a main hall called a darbara community kitchen called a langar and other facilities. The essential features of a gurdwara are these public spaces, the presence of the holy book and eternal Sikh guru the Granth Sahib the pursuit of the Sikh Rehat Maryada the Sikh code of conduct and conventionand the provision of daily services:.
Other ceremonies performed there include the Sikh marriage ceremony, Anand Karaj ; some of the rites of the death ceremony, Antam Sanskar ; and most of the important Sikh Festivals.
The Nagar Kirtana Sikh processional singing of holy hymns throughout a community, begin and conclude at a gurdwara. Gurdwaras around the world may also serve the Sikh community in other ways, including acting as libraries of Sikh literature and schools to teach children Gurmukhi, housing the Sikh scripturesand organizing charitable work in the wider community on behalf of Sikhs.
Many historical gurdwaras associated with the lives of the Sikh Gurus have a sarovar eco-friendly pool attached for bathing. Gurdwaras have no idolsstatues, or religious pictures. Gurudwara Paonta Sahibview inside a typical gurdwara. Many gurdwaras are designed to seat men on one side and women on the other, although designs vary, and the divided seating is far from mandatory. They do not generally sit together but on separate sides of the room, both at an equal distance from the Guru Granth Sahib, as a sign of equality.Rabb Da Radio 2 (Full Movie) - Tarsem Jassar, Simi Chahal - New Punjabi Movie - Latest Punjabi Film
Worshippers are offered Karah Parshad sweet flour and ghee -based food offered as prashad in the hall, which is usually given into cupped hands by a sewadar gurdwara volunteer. In the langar room, food is cooked and served by the volunteers in the community. Only vegetarian food is served in the langar hall, to suit the visitors from different backgrounds so that no person may be offended.
All people belonging to different faiths sit together to share a common meal, regardless of any dietary restrictions. The main philosophy behind the langar is two-fold: to provide training to engage in seva and an opportunity to serve people from all walks of life, and to help banish all distinctions between high and low or rich and poor.
Gurdwara buildings do not have to conform to any set architectural design. The only established requirements are: the installation of the Granth Sahib under a canopy or in a canopied seat, usually on a platform higher than the specific floor on which the devotees sit, and a tall Sikh pennant flag atop the building.
In the 21st century, more and more gurdwaras especially within India have been following the Harimandir Sahib pattern, a synthesis of Indo-Islamic and Sikh architecture. Most of them have square halls, stand on a higher plinth, have entrances on all four sides, and have square or octagonal domed sanctums usually in the middle.
List of British Sikhs
During recent decades, to meet the requirements of larger gatherings, bigger and better ventilated assembly halls, with the sanctum at one end, have become accepted style. The location of the sanctum, more often than not, is such as to allow space for circumambulation. Sometimes, to augment the space, verandahs are built to skirt the hall.